Resources for further study

In Print

Bingham, A. Walker. The Snake-Oil Syndrome: Patent Medicine Advertising. Hanover, MA: The Christopher Publishing House, 1994.

Helfand, William H. Quack, Quack, Quack: The Sellers of Nostrums in Prints, Posters, Ephemera & Books. New York: The Grolier Club, 2002.

Jay, Robert. The Trade Card in Nineteenth-Century America. Columbia, Mo: University of Missouri Press, 1987.

Reeves, Dorothea D. “Come All for the Cure-All: Patent Medicines, Nineteenth Century Bonanza.” Harvard Library Bulletin 15, no. 3 (1967): 253-272.

On the Web

All links current as of September 3, 2008.

Brooklyn Public Library. Fulton Street Trade Card Collection. Accessed at:

Harvard University Baker Library, Bloomberg Center. The 19th-Century American Trade Card. Accessed at:

Helfand, William H. (1988). Nineteenth-Century Proprietary Medicine Trade Cards. Slide talk excerpt issued by the American Institute of the History of Pharmacy. Accessed at:

Miami University Libraries Digital Collections. Victorian Trade Card Collection. Accessed at:

Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Eskind Biomedical Library Special Collections. Patent Medicine Collection. Accessed at: